Thermax' Tulsion T-45 BD Marco is a new macroporous dry wash resin. It has the ability to dry wash Biodiesel with superior processing functionality over the Purolite or Amberlite gel-type resin. This is because of a revolutionary new bead structure that allows it to work much more effectively at purifying Biodiesel.
Part 1 of Our Secret and Why this T-45 BD Macro Dry Wash Resin is superior
Arbor Biofuels Company puts it this way: the ability of a resin to remove impurities works on the principle of ion exchange (or in laymen's terms: atom replacement). Using water purification as an example, this atom replacement benefits water purity because usually the atom(s) used to replace the unwanted atom (or contamination) is Hydrogen (or Hydroxide).
Simply put, when water is contaminated with some mineral which makes the water taste funny --let’s say Sodium, the Sodium is then plucked out of the water stream by the resin and replaced by a Hydrogen atom. This free hydrogen will immediately bond with other molecules most likely producing water; and magically the Sodium is replaced with essentially more water...
A large surface area is imperative to this process because, in order for this to work effectively, the bead has to "hold" millions of hydrogen atoms ready to be donated for the cause. Therefore, the total surface area of the bead has to be covered in "dangling" hydrogen: hydrogen atoms that are loosely bonded chemically to the surface area of the ion exchange resin bead.
Chemists figured out the best way to increase the surface area of the bead was to make it "permeable" so that each bead not only had the external spherical surface area, it now had an immense internal surface area of its thousands of micro-channels. These micro-channels were also coated with the appropriate dangling atoms ready to purify even more water per bead.
For the purpose of biodiesel purification, the beads are typically coated with hydrogen from sulfuric acid. When these are formulated and manufactured, they are soaked in a high concentration of sulfuric acid. A portion of the sulfuric acid's molecule actually starts bonding to the exposed surface area of the bead. These bonded molecules provide millions of dangling Hydrogen atoms. After draining off the acid and drying the resin beads, the beads are now activated and you have a charged ion exchange resin.
This brings us to the "micro-channels". Being that these micro pathways are relatively tiny as compared to the size of liquid molecules; water can flow into them whereas oils cannot. Therefore water can penetrate a gel-bead through these micro-channels and oils like vegetable oil and Biodiesel (long chain hydrocarbons) can't. What this means is water, which is a good solvent of impurities, can transport these impurities to the total available activated surface area inside the bead and take full advantage of the bead's immense ion exchange properties. Therefore the water comes out perfectly clean on the other side and biodiesel doesn’t.
That is until Macro-Channel (or Macroporous) resin was invented! These resin beads have actual pores and these pores are so large that now even large hydrocarbon chain molecules can penetrate to the beads inner surfaces thus making them ideal for not only water purification but oil purification (and in our case Biodiesel)!
So there you have the first reason why the Thermax' Tulsion T-45 BD Macro works more effectively on Biodiesel: because it is not water, which gel resins were originally designed for, rather Biodiesel is a long branch chained Hydro-Carbon...
We have worked it out with Thermax and their distribution warehouse to make available 40 FREE ONE-LITER SAMPLES for members of the Biodiesel SVO (infopop) forum.
If you are interested in this resin for testing purposes please contact me or chads454
I'll take all 40!!
What is the cost per pound or per drum?
You're too much!
PM me for details
GCGThis message has been edited. Last edited by: GCG,
RECOMMENDED TESTING PROTOCOLS
- Use at least 100 ml of resin per resin bed.
- For small flow applications like biodiesel purification it will take a long time and volume of biodiesel to reach the resin exhaustion point.
- So complete testing won't necessarily be fast.
- An ~1" or 25mm column can be used made of either glass or plastic (glass is best).
- Make sure the column is clean and uncontaminated.
- To ensure the resin is contained in the column cloth mesh can be utilized on the bottom and top.
- A bottom filler material should be used consisting of fish gravel or very small marbles (1" deep)A lab rubber stopper with a hole through it can act as the columns outlet.
Somekind of tubing and simple valve (i.e. clamp) should be attached to the outlet hole of the rubber stopper.
- Control flow by simply pinching the outlet tube.
(note: keep your resin out of the sunlight, cool and sealed up)
3)Pretreating the resin bed:
- Given a column diameter of 1", an absolute minimum bed depth is 6 inch (1/6 ratio but accounts for other column flow factors). Deeper is better, and most actual use applications should not go less than 24".
- Backwash the resin bed or at least fill the test column until all air is evacuated and the entire bed of resin is covered with good biodiesel.
- If you do backwash the resin bed will more naturally segregate the resin by bed size - causing the larger and heavier beds to settle out on bottom and the lighter smaller beads to be on top. -- The resin bed will expand in volume due to this pretreatment but not as much as gel-type resins
- The pretreated volume is the bed volume (BV) used for optimal flow calculations.
- We recommend that the test bed be soaked for a few hours at a min. however overnight is often the best practice.
- After sufficient soak time has occurred run a few bed volumes of biodiesel through and the column is now properly prepared for actual purification testing.
- Absent already clean biodiesel, methanol can be used for this pretreament.
4) Testing Methodology:
- Since this resin is designed for both ion exchange and adsorbtion it will need to utilize very low flow rates in the range of 2 BV/hr. This will ensure the best purification and is considered a special processing application.
- During the flushing and/or regeneration of the resin bed, slightly lower rates than this should be used i.e. ~60% of the operating flow rate. Methanol is typically used for this cycle and should then be displaced by new clean biodiesel at the same flow rate for a few bed volumes. This can be followed by one BV/hr at the typical operating speed.
5)Summing up testing Parameters:
- Resin volume 100 – 250 ml
- Resin bed depth 6-24 inches (pretreated)
- Operating flow rate 2 BV/h (BV/h = Bed volumes per hour)
- Flushing flow rate 1.2 BV/h
- Regenerant contact time 15 – 60 minutes
- Slow displacement rinse 1.2 BV
- Final fast rinse 2 BV
- Ideally the column should be run continously until exhausted.
- Most ion exchange reactions are reversible and will tend to equalize with previously removed ions come back off the resin into solution.
- So it is imperative that samples tested with analytical equipment are not taken from biodiesel which has been allowed to rest in the resin bed.
- A few runs may be necessary to optimise the performance of your test column.
- Never drain the column or introduce air (bubbles are very difficult to remove)
- The column can be fed by gravity or small flow pumps
- If gravity fed then the column can be protected from draining by looping the outlet tubes end above the top of the resin column, if not a small valve or pinch clamp can be used to shut flow off.
Hopefully that's more than you'll need.
This is what it looks like...
This is how it looks in relation to Amberlite & Purolite:
Those pictures look Great!
2000 F350 SD 7.3PSD, 1996 F250 SD 7.3 PSD, 2005 Jeep liberty CRD, 2002 TC29D New Holland Tractor, 6K Diesel Generator, Heated Power Washer 'All Burnin Bio'
http://arborbiofuelscompany.com/ Selling Dry Wash Columns.
So is this resin better able to handle fresh bio or should it still be settled like the others.
1 2001 dodge 3500 cummins 3 1997 PSD Fords
1 2000 New Holland 1920 tractor
1 1983 Lull 844 converted to diesel
Outdoor wood boiler heating House and Garage.
even if it can handle fresh bio it is always desriable to settle to extend the life of your resin. Why waste resin capacity on the bulk a quickish settling period will remove?
mathematical elegance -- desired result achieved with minimal complication
Ant, you better ask em for a MSDS, they might be trying some funny business like the Quik N Dri guy you been harpin at!
If it aint broke, dont fix it! But its ok to take it apart and see how it operates.
Hey Biod4me your funny, please however realize that we have been discussing this product for sometime now on the forum and have done extensive testing both in the lab and the real world so we are just giving those people on the forum who are interested a chance to try a sample of the product.
Because its different from the gel resins that have typically been used for biodiesel purification. The pictures Graydon posted should illustrate visually that there is a distinct difference in the beads structure.
And by the way - when I first started thinking about shipping this product I pretty much demanded an MSDS because where I work its required by law for anyone handling and working with chemical materials.
Interestingly enough though I haven't verified (at this writing) that the samples are going out with MSDS's (and they should be) so I'm going to make a call today to verify this.
If they haven't then I will post an attachment containing this for the whole forum body.
Try to bring some kind of intelligence to the debate. GCG has my respect already. As he says he does the work first before bringing a product to board. And if you were a little more aware and educated you would realise that MSDS's are an important issue not some kind of optional extra. If you are only used to moving as a blindly ignorant end product consumer who takes it on trust that someone else has done the work to keep you safe in your ignorance then I can see it might not be immediatly obvious to you. However we try to make informed decisions here, not assume someone else will do the hard thinking for us.
mathematical elegance -- desired result achieved with minimal complication
How is the resin regenerated?
Here our the MSDS sheets:
So if you received a sample and didn't get this - here it is.
I just need to distinguish between resin regeneration and resin flushing.
True regeneration is a chemical process that removes all the soap atoms like Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) that have been removed from the impurities and literally chemically bonded on to the resin bead. This resin is a highly acidic resin and is regenerated in industry by Sulfuric acid in a heavy concentration. I have not to date received the actual regeneration protocols from Thermax on this resins regeneration (they have promised to provide this protocol so all the users can perform a true regeneration themselves with out the need to deal with hazardous material shipping back to a central facility) Most likely it will be performed right in the existing resin column.
Flushing on the other hand is performed by running methanol through the resin column at about 60% of the normal flow rate for 5-6 bed volumes. The methanol in this kind of gross quantity washes the trapped glcyerins and soap which were adsorbed by the resin (much like rinsing out a sponge).
We did a series of resin flushes and films here: chads454 photobucket
These include a couple test to ensure the flush is essentially complete.
Graydon has complied and editted all of these into one very nice "you tube" video perhaps he will post it here later.
OK, understood, I just happen to have a drum of high concentration sulphuric acid on hand.
I'd be surprised. Because to DRY the resin into it's original condition, after rinsing it with xxx gallons of sulphonic acid, would require quite a high temperature and I'm not sure this would be economically feasible if you use a few small columns.
So true Dimitri,
However I was thinking about not drying it but then washing out the sulfuric acid with methanol - you could reuse this sulfuric acid and methanol mixture for esterifying some high titrating used cooking oil.
Then I would drain the methanol off the bed and back fill with biodiesel. Let it sit one night then flush this biodiesel out with a few more bed volumes of biodiesel. This should produce a nearly completely regenerated resin bed (90+%)
So would we be talking about a BV of H2SO4?
According to the MSDS it's sulphonated /sulfonated copolymer, like most other resins sold for this application. This would imply that Thermax uses a sulphonic acid instead of sulfuric acid.
Did Thermax suggest using sulfuric acid to regenerate the resin?
Sulphonic acid is quite unstable and ready to negotiate its H+ ion. Sulfuric acid is not.
Video of flushing Ion Exhange Resin
Here's the link to the YouTube video I did on flushing Ion Exchange Resin.
The video is from Arbor Biofuels. I just did the editing.
At the end of flushing they do a great example of testing the methanol for purity and for soap content. I got a kick out of the "background music". Apparently they have great taste in music! (Yeah, I'm a redneck at heart )
I'll leave it to GCG to identify any inaccuracies I may have edited the wrong way though...