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Location: Cowboy Country | Registered: December 06, 2004Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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Location: Cowboy Country | Registered: December 06, 2004Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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Academic Paper published in the Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science.


Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Palm Oil and Environmental Impact Analysis

Abstract

SAIFUDDIN, M., P. E. GOH, W. S. HO, K. M. MONERUZZAMAN and A. NASRULHAQ-BOYCE, 2014. Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil and environmental impact analysis. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 20: 186-192 [I]

[I]The inevitability of oil depletion, global warming and the greenhouse effects has put the world on an alarming condition. It needs more than ever before to search for alternative forms of energy and this includes biodiesel, which is an environmentally friendly form of alternative energy compared to petrodiesel. The present study was carried out to investigate biodiesel production via alkaline transesterification using waste palm cooking oil and its chemical characteristics compared to conventional biodiesel. The highest yield of biodiesel was produced using a temperature of 55°C with methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 and at a catalyst (KOH ) concentration of 1.0%. The quality of the biodiesel produced was evaluated by the determinations of important properties, such as kinematics viscosity, total acid number (TAN ), total base number (TBN ) and ash content. The biodiesel produced was found to contain a low base number and undetected acid level but had a higher ash content and Ca, Mg and Na levels. Its kinematic viscosity and phosphorus level were found within the limits prescribed by the latest American Standards for Testing Material (ASTM). In the engine tests, the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide using biodiesel fuel were lower than that using conventional diesel fuel although the biodiesel fuel exhibited a higher specific fuel consumption compared to the diesel fuel. It can be concluded that biodiesel made from waste palm oil can be considered as a great potential source of commercial biodiesel. Emission tests showed that the level of unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide were lower than conventional diesel fuel.




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Location: Cowboy Country | Registered: December 06, 2004Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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Yes but; doesn't palm kernel oil (flakes) have a higher gel point? therefore it is more a summer fuel. And, I know a higher methanol ratio to vegetable oil produces a higher percentage of transesterification but it may not be economical on a larger scale like, 1000 litres as opposed to 1/2 a litre in a laboratory setting. The science might be correct but is it cost effective to use a 6:1 ratio of methanol to vegetable oil when doing the transesterification reaction on a large scale?

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Location: Texas | Registered: April 27, 2011Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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quote:
Originally posted by WesleyB:
Yes but; doesn't palm kernel oil (flakes) have a higher gel point? therefore it is more a summer fuel.
That has nothing to do with the information in the post.


quote:
And, I know a higher methanol ratio to vegetable oil produces a higher percentage of transesterification but it may not be economical on a larger scale like, 1000 litres as opposed to 1/2 a litre in a laboratory setting. The science might be correct but is it cost effective to use a 6:1 ratio of methanol to vegetable oil when doing the transesterification reaction on a large scale?
As I am sure you are aware, the stoicheometric requriement for a complete reaction is a 3:1 molar ratio. That works out to about 125ml methanol per litre WVO depending on what oil you are using.
Because transesterification is an equilibrium reaction, if you only use the stoichiometric amount of Methanol in the reaction you will only achieve around 80% conversion in a single stage reaction. That is not good enough.

Testing has shown that a 6:1 molar ratio, about 250ml methanol per litre WVO, is sufficent to drive the reaction far enough to the right in a single stage procedure to pass any national conversion test.
Many people cut that back to 200ml- 220 ml methanol and still pass 3/27 in a single stage reaction.
If you do multiple stage reactions you can cut the total amount of chemicls used back further.

If you recover excess methanol that is not a problem because the excess is recovered and usable for the next reaction.






 
Location: ลึก ประเทศอินเดีย | Registered: March 03, 2001Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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All right then Tilly; I misread the post. I thought I read methanol to oil (volume) ratio, but at second reading I see it says methanol to oil molar ratio, that's a big difference. Rather than 6 litres methanol to one litre oil, its about 252.6 millilitres of anhydrous methanol to one litre of new corn oil. I use new corn oil for some of my calculations because I figured the average molecular weight of that previously. But the research study was for used palm oil and what good is biodiesel made from used palm oil in cold weather? So when considering making biodiesel to be used the temperature is a factor. What good is solid biodiesel in the winter, as a replacement for petro diesel?
 
Location: Texas | Registered: April 27, 2011Reply With QuoteReport This Post



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Hi WesleyB,

quote:
Originally posted by WesleyB:
...But the research study was for used palm oil and what good is biodiesel made from used palm oil in cold weather? So when considering making biodiesel to be used the temperature is a factor. What good is solid biodiesel in the winter, as a replacement for petro diesel?
The research was performed at the University of Malaysia.
Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil in the world. I bet that they could use B100 made from palm oil year round in Malaysia.
I am sure I would be able to use it 8 or 9 months out of the year.
It probably would not work so well in North Dakota.

You could also substitute any other type of oil you like in the report in place of palm oil and it would probably be just about as accurate.






 
Location: ลึก ประเทศอินเดีย | Registered: March 03, 2001Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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Research paper from Malaysia:

Bacterial Isolation from Palm Oil Plantation Soil for Biodiesel Production

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Biodiesel (methyl esters) is a clean alternative fuel which can be produced from many renewable resources. Palm oil, like other vegetable oils, can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production through transesterification to produce palm oil methyl ester. Various microorganisms like bacteria and fungi have a diversity application which could be used as catalysts in a series of degradation reactions, such as transesterification. Malaysia is rich in palm oil and therefore, lots of bacteria surviving by consuming palm oil residue resource in palm oil plantation. In this study, eighteen (18) bacterial strains were successfully isolated from local soil samples and some of their characteristics determined. The optimum temperatures of all strains were in the range of 30 to 37°C, and the optimum batch culture times of all strains were in the range of 24 to 48 hours. All strains were submitted for Gram-staining. Three (3) strains denominated as A, B and C that was involved in the most significant transesterification reaction was selected for identification by submitting them to biochemical tests using the commercial API kit. The same three (3) isolates were submitted to identification by molecular technique. Two bacteria were identified to be Pseudomonas geniculata (A) and Stenotrophomonas maltoplilia (C), while the second bacteria (B) identified to be Bacillus pseudomycoides B-60.


Rick
 
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Working your arse all day at the office might get boring, but we're here to offer you a well desired break. Simply tell that customer on the line you'll call back, hit the save button on whatever you were working on and check this DIY kit right here to build you own biodiesel Toyota Land Cruiser.

Toyota Says Stop Working and Build this Biodiesel Land Cruiser... Out of Paper




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From SVO Tutorial dot org

Tony's SVO Guide

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University of Illinois, This article is to provides a full-year review of biodiesel production profitability in 2014.

The Profitability of Biodiesel Production in 2014



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Who? Dave? Dave's not here!
 
Location: New Zealand | Registered: August 15, 2006Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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Caymanian Dow Travers and his colleagues, Brown University alums James McGinn and Han Yang Lee, have established a renewable alternative energy company on island that they say manufactures biodiesel fuel from waste products, creating a clean source of energy.


New biodiesel company sees potential in Cayman market





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Britain’s first ‘Bio-Bus’ powered entirely by human and food waste takes to the streets between Bath and Bristol

UK's first 'poo bus' hits the road





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The next generation of these buses will have there own toilet and anerobic digester on board. Passengers will be encouraged to use the toilet.

A spokesman for Bath and Bristol council said they were considering a 10% reduction of fares for all that wanted to relieve themselves whilst taking their journey.
 
Location: YORK UK | Registered: April 27, 2014Reply With QuoteReport This Post



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Originally posted by Dgs:
The next generation of these buses will have there own toilet and anerobic digester on board. Passengers will be encouraged to use the toilet.

A spokesman for Bath and Bristol council said they were considering a 10% reduction of fares for all that wanted to relieve themselves whilst taking their journey.

Pay for the ride with Feces or Full Fare; bring enough from home and ride for free.

"We Give-a-Sh!t About the Environment, You Should Too"



 
Location: coldest N.America | Registered: May 03, 2005Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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J G, Yes, I care too.

But did it bring a smile to your face, thats why I wrote it.
 
Location: YORK UK | Registered: April 27, 2014Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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