Digging coal out of the ground and exporting it around the globe where it's burned is a significant addition to the worlds GHGs and toxic air pollution. It's far more toxic than oilsands.
Worlds biggest polluters are the countries producing coal: China, USSA, Australia, Indonesia, India
It matters not to the world if it's burned at home or exported to be burned elsewhere. Global pollution is global, there is no 'peeing end' in the atmosphere pool.
While Australia’s domestic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions represent some 1.5% of the global total, its global carbon footprint – the total amount of carbon it pushes out into the global economy - is much bigger.
Australia is the world’s largest coal exporter. By adding emissions from exported coal to domestic emissions, Australia’s carbon footprint trebles. Its coal exports alone currently contribute at least another 3.3% of global emissions.
In aggregate, therefore, Australia is at present the source of at least 4.8% of total global emissions. That’s without considering natural gas exports. The greenhouse gas emissions in other countries from ... coal export ... will greatly outweigh the proposed reductions in Australia's emissions from the introduction of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme.
While Australia imposes safeguards on the export of uranium, it does not impose any requirements for carbon capture and storage of greenhouse gas emissions of exported coal. Australia thus contributes substantially more to the global warming which, according to the Garnaut Climate Change Review will lead to the destruction of the Great Barrier Reef, Kakadu and the Murray Darling Basin as they have existed during recorded history to date. Australia is also a major exporter of liquefied natural gas, another fossil fuel.
About 0.15 per cent of global GHG emissions comes from Canada's oil sands development. All of Canada's crude oil exports are 0.91% of global GHGs. The total GHGs produced by the extraction and consumption of Canadain oil including the oil sands is 1% of the global total. Australia's contribution to global GHGs is 3.3 to 4.8 times that amount.
The Earth Is Getting Hotter Faster Than It Ever Has Since Dawn Of civilisation!
A new analysis of Earth’s climate over the last 11,300 years indicates our global temperature is now higher than it has been for most of that period. The temperature is also rising faster than we’ve ever seen. By 2100, the Earth will be warmer than any time during this period no matter what we do, they project.
“We already knew that on a global scale, Earth is warmer today than it was over much of the past 2,000 years,” study researcher Shaun Marcott of Oregon State said in a statement. “Now we know that it is warmer than most of the past 11,300 years. This is of particular interest because the Holocene spans the entire period of human civilisation.”
During the last 5,000 years, the Earth as a whole cooled about 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit – until the past 100 years, when it warmed about 1.3 degrees. The largest changes were in the northern hemisphere, where there are more land masses and greater human populations.
“The last century stands out as the anomaly in this record of global temperatures since the end of the last ice age,” said Candace Major, program director in the National Science Foundation’s Division of Ocean Sciences.
Predictions indicate this trend will continue, with the Earth warming between two and up to 11.5 degrees by 2100. We will really be seeing the effects of global climate change by then: In 2100, spring will come to New York in mid-February.
Canada is the "most admired" country with the "best reputation" in the world, according to an annual survey ranking the reputations of developed nations across the globe.
Norway placed second on the list, followed by Sweden, Switzerland, and Australia. The United States slotted into 22nd spot.
The Reputation Institute also produced a separate list ranking countries based on what their citizens said about their homelands. Australia ranked first on this "self-image" list, followed by Canada, Russia, India and Germany, with the U.S. in sixth place.
Russia had the largest gap between their self-image and how they are perceived by other nations. Russian citizens scored their country as the third-most reputable country in the world, but other nations ranked them 52nd out of 55 countries, ahead of only Pakistan, Iran, and Iraq.
The gap between internal reputation and external reputation was also large for China, India and the United States.
Tar sands are the dirtiest source of oil on Earth.
This extreme source of oil is currently being mined mainly in Alberta Canada, however, oil companies are now pursuing tar sands mines in the U.S. West.
Tar sands are composed of clay, sand, water, and bitumen (a heavy black hydrocarbon). Extracted
bitumen can be refined into synthetic oil and other petroleum products.
Bitumen cannot be pumped from the ground in its natural state, so deposits must be mined using energy-intensive extraction techniques and then separated from the sand, clay, and water.
Shallow tar sands deposits can be recovered using open-pitmining techniques. In this process, massive 20-storytall shovels strip the tar sands from the earth and load it onto the world’s largest dump trucks for transport to upgraders, where hot water is used to separate the bitumen from the sand. The in situ method, used to extract deeper tar sand deposits, entails injecting compressed steam into a network of underground pipes to melt the bitumen out of the earth.
Science Confirms 2014 Was Hottest Yet Recorded, On Land And Sea
July 17, 2015
Floodwaters from rising sea levels have submerged and killed trees in Bedono village in Demak, Central Java, Indonesia. As oceans warm, they expand and erode the shore. Residents of Java's coastal villages have been hit hard by rising sea levels in recent years.
For the past quarter-century, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has been gathering data from more than 400 scientists around the world on climate trends.
The report on 2014 from these international researchers? On average, it was the hottest year ever — in the ocean, as well as on land. Icebergs float in Iceland's Jökulsárlón glacial lake, where the Vatnajökull glacier is retreating quickly due to global warming.
Deke Arndt is a climate scientist with the agency and an author of the State of the Climate in 2014 report, released Thursday. It's the lower atmosphere that's warming, not the upper atmosphere, he points out — just as the total of greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere continues to increase. That's not a coincidence.
"The changes that we see in the lower part of the atmosphere are driven by a change in the composition of the atmosphere," Arndt says. "If an external forcing — such as the sun or some orbital phenomenon — would be driving the warming, we would see a warming across the board in most of the atmosphere. And we don't."
This year's hottest-ever record is the third time that's happened in the past 15 years.
The annual spike in ocean temperature — specifically, in the upper 2,000 feet of water in most of the world's oceans — was especially big last year, the scientists say. Melbourne visitors and residents took to the waters of Australia's St. Kilda Beach in January 2013 to escape a fierce heat wave.
"You can sort of think of ocean warming as being global warming, since that's where most of the global warming goes," says Greg Johnson, an ocean scientist at NOAA.
A lot of extra heat has been trapped in the lower atmosphere over the past several decades, Johnson says. And the ocean is going to continue to suck up that heat and get warmer.
Moreover, the oceans expand when they get warmer. That raises sea levels, which — again, no coincidence — reached their highest point last year, as well. The naval base at Norfolk has had to build two levels to its docks to accommodate rising sea levels. The water level has risen about 1 1/2 feet since 1920.
Glaciers continued to melt. And the extent of Arctic sea ice kept shrinking as well.
On the temperature front, Europe was hotter than ever. But it wasn't hotter than blazes everywhere. The eastern U.S. got a break. The winter there was especially cold, which led some climate skeptics to question the whole idea of climate change.
Jessica Blunden, a climate scientist and report author who consults for NOAA, says the weather in the East was an outlier.
"For example, the lower latitudes of eastern North America and parts of Russia were well below average during this period — up to 10 degrees Fahrenheit below average," Blunden says. "But then in the higher latitudes, Alaska, for example, was super warm for this time of year — 18 degrees above average in late January.
So the eastern U.S. got lucky — if you consider record-breaking snow, and cold weather lucky. Keith Seitter, head of the American Meteorological Society, which published the report, found that ironic.
"I'm here in Boston," he says. "We had an incredibly tough winter, but that doesn't change the fact that the globe is getting warmer. And 2014 really represents some kind of landmark year in that respect."
As the climate report shows, weather is local. Climate is global.
Hottest ever? Well... maybe for those who consider a couple of decades as 'ever'. Irrefutable evidence shows that it was warmer at the peak of the Medieval Warming a few hundred years ago, just before rapidly plunging into the coldest period since the end of the most recent ice age 10,000 years ago.
Italy sizzles again as new heatwave hits
Published: 13 Jul 2015 16:05 GMT+02:00
The new heatwave, nicknamed 'Caronte', has already got the mercury rising and will cause intense heat and stuffiness right across the country.
Temperatures will rise steadily throughout the week before peaking at the weekend, according to Il Meteo.
No rain is forecast except for a few isolated thunderstorms.
Saturday will see highs of 37 degrees Celsius in Bolzano, Florence and Milan. Rome, Naples and Florence will be hotter still at 38 degrees, while a sweltering 39 degrees is predicted in northeastern Trieste.
The Italian Met office, Meteo Aeronautica, has put out extreme temperature warnings for the next five days in six regions, and so far more than 1300 people have called the Ministry of Health's 'safe summer 2015' hotline (1500) because of the heat.
The new heatwave comes just days after the end of a previous bout of hot weather, which sent the mercury rising up to 40 degrees Celsius across many Italian cities.
The previous heatwave, dubbed 'Flegetonte' was lethal, killing more than 10 people and contributing in no small part to a tornado that ripped through Venice, leaving one dead and causing millions of euros worth of damage.
The models of solar activity predict a new minimum in solar activity. The models have been validated against observation back to as long as we have observation. They are pretty accurate. Whether decreased solar activity has much relationship to solar output – and thus to irradiation received by Earth – is not so clear. We do know that the variance in solar radiation is tiny compared to the output of the sun – but that tiny variance exceeds all the other sources of thermal addition to the Earth’s eco-system, including warming from the interior (due to radioactive element decay in the core). Tiny – relative to solar output – variations in solar output have a large effect on climate. Whether sunspots indicate increased total solar input to the Earth is not so well understood, since we do not have sunspot records for more than a few hundred years, and we do not have accurate records of Earth temperature for more than a century (defining accurate to a degree C or less).
None of this is easy reading, but my conclusion is that there is considerable uncertainty, but it is a reasonable conclusion that models of solar activity are useful in predicting solar output and therefore total solar heat input to Earth. Whether these variations in solar output are are more responsible than CO2 (1825 to present) for global warming is worth study, but need to find more data. It does seem reasonable to to be skeptical about the certainty of human caused global warming, since we know that Earth in Viking times was at least as warm as it is today and very likely was warmer in Roman times.
As Freeman Dyson continues to point out, CO2 is going to have its greatest effect in cold, dry areas, because the “greenhouse” effects of CO2 are small compared to those of water vapor. As soon as there is appreciable water vapor, heat reflected from earth and radiated to space but intercepted by greenhouse gasses has been got: there isn’t more for the CO2 to intercept.
We can possibly predict a coming period of minimal solar surface activity – sunspots, etc. Whether this will cause cooling is not known, but it appears to be possible. There is definitely a correlation between sunspots and solar irradiance. Whether this predictable decrease in irradiance is greater that the effects of CO2 is apparently in dispute among those more expert than me. I can only work with the data available, but include in that data records of growing seasons and other rough climate indications from Britain to China, and I’m quite certain it was warmer in Viking times than now, despite Mann’s hockey stick that purported to erase the Viking Warm period.
One thing is certain: USA efforts to decrease the use of coal will have very little effect of world production of CO2, as undeveloped countries continue to become developing nations, and China continues to build coal plants . As witness:
Holy crap you guys still at it? The only way tilly will ever believe that global warming is a scam and money maker is when the frost bite reaches up and freezes their ass.
Quit wasting your time im sure there is more constructive things to do, its not worth it.
Geologically speaking, we live in a time period of intense climatic change. Since the last 1 million years, our species and our human forebears experienced a dozen or so major glaciations of the northern hemisphere, with the greatest ever occurring around 650,000 years ago. During this period of extreme ice buildup, the ice advanced deep into the Midwest, from its center around Hudson Bay in Canada, and deep into Germany, from its center on the Scandinavian Shield. So much ice collected in these two major regions and several lesser ones that the sea level dropped by some 400 feet and the overall global temperature was lowered by around 5°C (about 9°F).
Mammoth, mastodon, wooly rhinoceros, giant bison, camels, horses, and many large predators (cats, wolves, bears) roamed the grasslands well south of the rim of the miles-high ice, both in North America and in Europe. Small bands of humans made a living by hunting and gathering in Africa, and perhaps elsewhere. The glaciation that occurred 650,000 years ago lasted some 50,000 years. It had a profound effect on the landscape, carving great glacial valleys and fjords and lakes, and making moraines and glacial outwash plains around the perimeter of its extent. The greatly lowered sea level allowed rivers to cut deeply into the shelves of the continents and into the edges of the shelves, where the sea floor drops off into the deep ocean. Here canyons could form which would later serve to funnel sediments from the shelf into the deep sea.
After this great glaciation, a succession of smaller glaciations has followed, each separated by about 100,000 years from its predecessor, according to changes in the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit (a fact first discovered by the astronomer Johannes Kepler, 1571-1630). These periods of time when large areas of the Earth are covered by ice sheets are called “ice ages.” The last of the ice ages in human experience (often referred to as the Ice Age) reached its maximum roughly 20,000 years ago, and then gave way to warming. Sea level rose in two major steps, one centered near 14,000 years and the other near 11,500 years. However, between these two periods of rapid melting there was a pause in melting and sea level rise, known as the “Younger Dryas” period. During the Younger Dryas the climate system went back into almost fully glacial conditions, after having offered balmy conditions for more than 1000 years.
The reasons for these large swings in climate change are not yet well understood.
21 years off the grid and counting
No, the sun isn't going to save us from global warming
Don't see any dispute there if every study agrees
21 years off the grid and counting
A mass of Antarctic air has turned the usually mild Australian winter into a snowy winter wonderland. Regions known for their sunny weather, from central New South Wales to Queensland, experienced an uncomfortable snow fall last week, paired with record low temperatures for the month of July. The usual 50 degree F winter weather has dipped down as far as 24 degrees F in some areas, making for the coldest winter in over twenty years.
Read more: Australia's Sunshine State hit with rare snowfall | Inhabitat - Sustainable Design Innovation, Eco Architecture, Green Building
Global warming YEAH RIGHT. Australia has snow Tilly better have long johns on.
North-east US cools down after heatwave but the south sees no relief!!
Temperatures were expected to reach 90F (32C) with soaring humidity in Central Park for a third day, while temperatures in south set to reach 110F!!
At New York’s Central Park observatory, temperatures were expected to top 90F (32C) for the third day in a row, with humidity levels making it feel much hotter. If they do, NBC New York reported, it would be the first sustained heat wave in two years.
In New York City and surrounding areas, more than 20,000 homes and businesses lost power overnight on Monday, cutting off air conditioners that had already been working overtime. Air quality alerts were issued across New York and surrounding states, and residents were urged to spend as little time outside as possible.
No relief is in sight for the American south, though, where the National Weather Service has issued heat advisories across parts of nine states, including South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi. Heat indexes – the combined effect of real temperature and humidity – on Tuesday afternoon were expected to be as high as 110F (43C), the service said.
Hi 96 canola
Australia has snow every year.
There is a thriving winter skiing industry in New South Wales and Victoria.
My kids go skiing every winter
It even nearly snowed here once about 35 years ago, but then it didn't.
Perisher, located in the Australian Snowy Mountains is the largest ski resort in the southern hemisphere
Welcome to the real world
I know Australia gets snow, I just couldn't resist putting that article on.lol
Arctic ice 'grew by a third' after cool summer in 2013
By Matt McGrath Environment correspondent, BBC News
21 July 2015
Average thickness of Arctic sea ice in spring as measured by Cryosat between 2010 and 2015.
The volume of Arctic sea ice increased by around a third after an unusually cool summer in 2013.
Researchers say the growth continued in 2014 and more than compensated for losses recorded in the three previous years.
Heat wave in B.C. breaks 64 temperature records
Osoyoos and Warfield both had highs of 40 C
By Tamara Baluja, CBC News Posted: Jun 29, 2015 4:46 PM PT
This past weekend's heat wave in B.C. is one for the history books.
Environment Canada says 64 temperature records for communities across the province have been broken.
The highest temperature was 40.6 C, recorded in Warfield, a village outside Trail in West Kootenay, on Saturday.
Osoyoos, near the U.S. border about 400 kilometres east of Vancouver, came close — hitting 40.4 C.
21 years off the grid and counting
NOAA Tampering Exposed
July 20, 2015
tags: Temperature Adjustments
By Paul Homewood
Last month, NOAA caused a lot of controversy by adjusting historic global temperature data to show that the pause had never happened. This has been well covered by WUWT and others, but what is less well known is that NOAA have been making similar but subtle adjustments year by year for a while now.
When they do this, the old versions are never archived, and they do not publically announce what they have done. Instead, the new figures simply replace the old version.
Fortunately, however, Walter Dnes has been archiving the old data each month since January 2010. His results were published at WUWT last week.
I have used his data to show in a simple fashion what the total effect of these changes since 2009 has been.
First, we can look at the changes that have been made to annual data back to 1880. Figure 1 shows, for instance, that the temperature anomaly for 1938 published currently is 0.13C lower than was published in January 2010. In contrast the anomaly for recent years has been increased, for instance 2009 has increased from 0.56C to 0.64C.
The overall effect of these changes has been to cool the 1930’s and 40’s, and increase warming in recent years.
Note as well though the way that the changes have steadily added to temperature anomalies since 1999, thus conveniently removing the pause.
The effect of these recent changes can be seen in more detail in Figure 2. Temperatures have been progressively increased as each year has gone by.
For instance, in their State of the Climate Report for 2010, NOAA showed 2010 and 2005 tying as the warmest years, 0.02C higher than 1998.
However, the latest version shows that 2010 as being 0.04C warmer than 2005, and 0.06C warmer than 1998.
But the tampering is even worse than this, as changes were being made prior to Walter Dnes beginning his archiving in 2010. It is difficult to get a handle on the full extent, since NOAA do not archive these things.
We can though see how things changed between 2004 and 2010.
Take another look at the 2010 version in Figure 3. The anomaly for 1998 was 0.60C, 0.06C higher than the figure for 2004.
But when we look at the State of the Climate Report for 2004, we find that 1998 was 0.09C warmer than 2004. In other words, between 2004 and 2010, the temperature for 1998 has been reduced relative to 2004 by 0.03C.
Add that to the 0.06C already identified, and by magic 1998 is now demoted to only the fifth warmest year!
It is little wonder that, with tampering on this scale, the NOAA dataset has been diverging so drastically from the satellite numbers since 1998.
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